Cao Bang Province located in the northern part of the country has borders with Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang, Bac Kan, and Lang Son provinces within Vietnam. It also has a common international border (322 kilometres (200 mi) long) with the Guangxi province of the People’s Republic of China. The main town is also named Cao Bang.
The geographical setting of the province is mostly mountainous, with land available for habitation thus being limited. The average temperature reported in the province is 22 °C (72 °F). Winter temperatures in some areas occasionally experience freezing conditions and some amount of snowfall. The Ban Gioc Waterfall which is on the border with China is a well known natural feature in the province. The western side of Cao Bang borders Tuyen Quang and Ha Giang Provinces. The southern side of Cao Bang borders the provinces of Bac Kan and Lang Son. The north-west expanse of the province is 80 kilometres (50 mi), from Trọng Con in Thạch An district to Duc Hanh in Bao Lam district. It stretches170 kilometres (110 mi) from east to west, from Quang Lam in Bao Lam district to Ly Quoc in Hạ Lang district. Cao Bang has an area of 6,724.6 square kilometres (2,596.4 sq mi) (2008 figures). Mountainous forests take up more than 90% of the province.
The Peninsular valley of the Cao Bang Province is formed between the Bang Giang and Hien rivers. The two rivers confluence to the northwest of the town. In the war with China the town was damaged in 1979 and has been since rebuilt. The market in Cao Bang town is believed to be the largest in Vietnam. Cao Bang town is located on Highway 3 and is 270 kilometres (170 mi) from Hanoi. The road from Nao Pac to Cao Bang passes through the Cao Bac Pass. Since the elevation of the town is 300 metres (980 ft) it has salubrious temperate climate throughout the year.[